Для достижения устойчивого развития вовлеченных стран в регионе выполняется ряд трансграничных экологических проектов, базирующихся на национальных компонентах, таких как:
Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in the Kazakhstani Sector of the Altai-Sayan Mountain Eco-region, который который непосредственно связан и будет интегрирован с подобным полномасштабным проектом, разрабатываемым в России, планируется использование подхода биорегионального управления для сохранения биоразнообразия. Этот подход должен подчеркнуть важность экологических систем и процессов, выходящих за политические и административные границы, так как меры по охране окружающей среды в рамках лишь политических и административных регионов не в состоянии обеспечить наиболее эффективного подхода к сохранению биоразнообразия.
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проектами, выполняемыми в регионе Центральной Азии и России
The accumulation of industrial and municipal solid waste in the result of economic activity occurs in Kazakhstan by fast rates and in large volumes. It has destroying impact on soils, underground and surface water, and on the health of the population through air pollution.
The world community considers reduction of waste amount – waste amount and toxicity minimization – as a priority issue and important way of solid waste management. At the same time, this way is the most radical and safe for environment.
Prevention of polluting substances discharges and waste generation at the production are the effective measures on waste reduction. Besides, the manufacture of products with large useful life prevents their transformation into waste. In Kazakhstan the Strategy of Cleaner Production is developed that will promote saving the resources, protection of health and environment
Municipal Solid Waste
Municipal solid waste are considered to be a serious problem for Kazakhstan, there are significant amounts of them in large populated areas. Average accumulation per person in large cities is from 1.3 to 2.2 m3. The cheapest and most acceptable method of long-term and safe garbage burial are being organised landfills (fields). In practice we often face the problems of unfavourable sanitary and hygiene conditions inside cities due to untimely collection and removal of waste, imperfection of container system of collection, spontaneous landfill and non-observance of technology of garbage burial at the organised garbage fields.
City of Almaty is considered to be the largest producer of waste of all types. All municipal waste of Almaty are stored on the territory of the landfill, located 7 km from the city, which is being operated with violation of the current normative documents and technically is not equipped. Paper and food waste accounted for the main composition of the municipal solid waste for 1995, being 51% of the total amount. Utilisation of waste, containing toxic substances, such as, luminescent lamps, mercury-containing devices (thermometers, batteries etc.) remains to be an urgent problem. There are no specially allocated places for destruction of products with expired dates. Lack of funds with the budgetary organisations (schools, kindergartens, hospitals etc.) to pay for services on waste collection is resulted in the fact, that waste are not collected and profitability of enterprises, engaged in waste collection, is being reduced. Currently there is practically no processing of municipal solid waste on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The existing Almaty plant, processing municipal solid waste, is not operational for the last three years.
In the result of insufficient control on behalf of concerned bodies, no punishment measures are taken in cases of landfill burning and organisation of spontaneous landfills is residential areas.
There is lack of responsibility with citizens. The local population, community associations do not influence the process of decision-making of executive bodies. There is neither permanent and continuous control, nor responsible coordinating state body.
Industrial and Toxic Waste
As a result of the existing resources and raw material orientation of the industry of nature use in Kazakhstan, about 50 tonnes of various substances are produced per capita annually. Twenty billion tonnes of industrial waste have been accumulated up to the present on the territory of Kazakhstan under the annual accumulation in amount of 1 billion tonnes. Ninety five percent of the total amount of the mined ore go to waste, quite often being extremely toxic and left in places, inadequate for storage. Industrial wastes of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy and gold-mining industry make up 14 billion tonnes and accumulated at the territory of 50 thousand hectares.
Thus, 5.2 billion tonnes of waste have been accumulated only in the result of activity on dressing and metallurgical processing. At the annual generation of industrial waste of 1 billion t not more than 100 million tonnes can be utilised. More than 60 thousand hectares of land are alienated because of waste bank, dumps of open-cast mines, boreholes, dumps.
Areas under storage of non-ferrous metallurgy waste are about 15000 hectares, of which 8000 hectares are under mining dumps, about 6000 hectares are under tailings of dressing plants and over 500 hectares are under dumps of metallurgical plants. Permanently increasing volumes of stored waste form new technical landscapes, affecting environment, polluting air, soils , surface and underground waters by toxic components (mercury, arsenic, antimony, etc.) Waste piles, increasing in height, become more intensive sources of dust formation
Solid domestic wastes (SDW). Problems of SDW collection and utilisation are solved badly everywhere due to transport absence and proper sanitary requirements for burial grounds. Material and technical base of municipal enterprises is worsened because of their finance reduction.
It led to aggravation of solid and liquid domestic waste removal from the territories of towns and villages. At present 39 towns and regional centres, 95 villages (28.5 % of total number of administrative and territorial units) have planned regular sanitary cleaning.
Storehouses of household waste are created an ecologically unfavourable situation. Now, the republic has 52 ranges for waste by general area 210 hectares, on which more than 1.2 million m3 of waste (not accounting waste of Bishkek) are placed, but a processing of them is practically absent.
There are 53 objects on territory of the country, which use poisonous substances in their manufacture, from them 18 industrial objects are referred to the category of chemically dangerous. In case of failure on these objects, the life of the population in their limits will be connected to a risk of a defeat.
Consider a situation, an example with household waste from Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan. More than 90 % urban rubbish heaps do not correspond to sanitary norms. Municipal services and the urban enterprises have no means for maintenance of the water draining and cleaning constructions under normal conditions, owing to that they come in decline.
The durable accumulating mountains of rubbish and food waste create favourable conditions for reproduction of insects and rodents, able to transfer infections and cause epidemic disease. Solid rubbish is thrown out in open district creating a direct danger and opportunity of pollution of system of urban water supply
In 771 settlements collection and removal of litter are held by application system.
There are 155 dumps for solid wastes in the republic, only one is referred to the first group of good sanitary condition, 144 - to the third group. It results in intensive soil, ground and surface water pollution.
There are no litter - recycling plants in the republic, which is a drastic problem for Osh, Djalal-Abad and Chui oblasts, having no free territories for domestic waste dumps.
Industrial and toxic wastes. Enterprises of mining, leather, cement, chemical, galvanising and textile industries are the biggest pollutants in the republic. The enterprises have to store and keep their wastes on their own territories because of lack of special objects for storage and recycling of harmful industrial wastes and grounds for their bury.
The harmful industrial wastes, in the majority, are not supervised. Some wastes, for example containing mercury, are thrown out on urban heaps, other remain without observation in different places, and in some cases enterprises temporarily store them on their territory.
In the republic there are no special objects for processing and storage of harmful substances, except for special plant for storage of radioactive sources of radiation.
The information about harmful waste is not enough to determine a degree of their influence on the environment. It is known, for example, that in the Chui valley approximately 5000 tonnes of harmful substances suitable for burning, and 10000 tonnes of inorganic harmful substances are annually thrown out.
Another big problem is registration and utilisation of mercury - bearing elements (mercury lamps, thermometers and other devices). For instance, up to 95700 mercury lamps (containing 65 gr. of mercury each) and 1300 mercury thermometers (2 gr. of mercury in each) are thrown out and kept uncontrolled every year. At present at the Bishkek machine - building plant 6.4 tonnes of mercury lamps, thermometers are stored. The same situation is observed at other industrial enterprises.
Due to the lack of grounds for utilisation of different kinds of wastes, all of them are placed on the enterprise territories on places unsuitable for storage. It leads to ground water contamination by chrome, mercury, oil-products and other harmful substances.
Measures on introduction of waste-less technologies or reutilization and secondary use of wastes are not practically applied.
National plan on environment protection. The Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek, 1995.
National action plan on hygiene of environment. The Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek, 1995.
Please find more detailed information in STATE OF ENVIRONMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KYRGYZSTAN Report
Solid domestic wastes. P opulation growth and economic development of the republic is accompanied by increase of natural resources consumption and wastes quantity. The data of volume of formation, utilisation, bury and other actions toward wastes do not reflect real situation, but they give information on the problems dealing with wastes.
Total quantity of wastes is 250 million tonnes, 1.2 thousand hectares are occupied by waste storages.
Every year over 4 million tonnes of solid domestic wastes are accumulated; and for 5 years 20 million tonnes of solid domestic wastes 16 million mі of industrial and 190 million tonnes of different kinds of mining production wastes have been accumulated. They occupy 70 grounds, but 65 of them have no technical control service for wastes.
77.1 % of total wastes is mining production wastes, 3.3 % - other industrial wastes, including 400 names, and 19.4 % - solid domestic wastes. 10 % of industrial wastes are used for the second time.
Industrial and toxic wastes. T here were 70 deposits of useful minerals on the territory of Tajikistan before. Mining industry is characterised by continuous decline of production during last 5-6 years, but major part of wastes is connected with this branch of industry. In the early 1998 200 million tonnes were accumulated in tail-storages. There are 28 tail-storages, 13 of them are already filled up, and 13 are working now.
Extracting enormous quantity of rocks, the enterprises use only 3-10 % as useful raw material. The rest part is accumulated in tail-storages and dumps. The list of industrial wastes includes 400 names along with toxic. The biggest sources of toxic wastes are: Tajik aluminium plant, industrial enterprise "Tajikchimprom", "Tajikcement" and others.
For instance, Tajik aluminium plant has 41900 tonnes of coal foam, 55700 tonnes of coke dust, 21600 tonnes of electrolysis lining. "Tajikchimprom" has 1300 tonnes of sodium hydrochloride sodium wastes. Luminescent lamps are referred to dangerous wastes. They are accumulated in great quantities every year because there is no installation for demercurization in the republic. A considerable quantity of expired pesticides is accumulated on the territories of some farms. They are illegally taken away to the dumps of solid domestic wastes. 2.4 thousand tonnes of chemical weed and pest-killers are buried on Vakhsh and Kanibadam dumps. There is a special equipped ground for radioactive wastes in Faizabad region (40-45 km to eastward from Dushanbe). In 1997 a case of radioactive waste bury of another country took place in Tajikistan. It occurred in a tunnel of the Nurek reservoir, but was revealed by special service of the republic. 1/3 of all dumps are located at a distance of 3 km from towns. In spite of co
Reference: STATE OF ENVIRONMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN Report
Domestic and industrial wastes. T he problem of domestic and industrial wastes becomes more serious with the increase of economic activity rates, development of consumption and social domestic sector. That is why prevention of ecological balance infringement is one of the most important tasks.
About 7 million tonnes of all kinds of industrial and domestic wastes are accumulated in the country every year. It should be noted that all figures are assessable, because in 1991 statistic registration on wastes was ceased.
Only residential area gives 150-220 kg of solid domestic wastes per capita every year. The volume of wastes increases by 30-50 % due to public organisation (shops, hospitals, cafes, restaurants, schools, institutes and soon). So, 1 million tonnes of solid domestic wastes is accumulated in residential and domestic sectors and it has a growth tendency.
Distribution of residential fund in Ashgabad is as follows: 45 % belong to municipal sector and 35 % - to private sector. In Ashgabad all dumps are controlled, i.e. wastes are utilised at definite special places. Removal of wastes is agreed with municipal service treaties of cities, regions, etc. The Ministry of Nature gives permission to wastes storage.
Industrial and toxic wastes. T here are 3 toxic waste grounds in Turkmenistan: Mary velayat - "Karipaty", Lebap velayat - "Zerger", Dashvohuz velayat - "Tahta".
1350 tonnes of expired and forbidden pesticides are buried there (butifos, methylethylchlorofos, keltan and others). The situation at "Zerger" ground causes a special alarm. It is located inside the industrial zone now and represents ecological danger for population.
It should be noted that there is no special installation for high temperature decomposition of harmful wastes and pesticides in Turkmenistan.
References: STATE OF ENVIRONMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKMENISTAN Report
Solid domestic wastes. 30 million mі of domestic wastes store on the city and rural dumps in the republic. Over 230 dumps were formed spontaneously without necessary permission and project documents and are sources of environment pollution.
The problem of sanitary cleaning of settlements oriented to a complete waste removal (100 %) to constant dumps is observed. Per 1million tonnes of domestic wastes the following indices are lost: 360 thousand tonnes of food wastes; 160 thousand tonnes of paper and cardboard, 55 thousand tonnes of textile; 45 thousand tonnes of plastic and many other valuable components. But the problem of special grounds placement has not been solved in Tashkent, Tashkent oblast and other big cities and towns of the republic.
Industrial wastes T here are 43 enterprises using 80 accumulators for large industrial wastes on the territory of Uzbekistan. They occupy 22 thousand hectares. This territory may be compared with the area of infringed lands or correspond to an area of administrative region.
Total capacity of these accumulators is 1.25 kmі (it may be compared with the volume of a large water reservoir). The majority of these constructions (92 %) are located on the territory of industrially developed and densely - populated oblasts such as Tashkent, Fergana, Samarkand and Navoi, where large wastes forming enterprises of chemistry, oil-chemistry, mining, dressing, and recycling, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, electro-thermal technology are situated.
References: STATE OF ENVIRONMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN Report
|Last updated: 2004-03-16 13:34:05|